SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN
The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is an extensive scheme to universalize elementary education through district based, decentralized specific planning and implementation strategy by community ownership of the school system. The scheme covering the entire country subsuming within itself all other major governmental educational interventions. The Abhiyan is to provide useful and relevant elementary education for children in the 6-14 age group by 2010. The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is being implement by the JEPC in all 22 district of Jharkhand since 2001-02.
WHAT IS SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN
* A programme with a clear time frame for universal elementary education.
* A response to the demand for quality basic education all over the country.
* An opportunity for promoting social justice through basic education.
* An effort at effectively involving the Panchayati Raj Institutions, School Management
Committees, Village and Urban Slum level Education Committees, Parents
'Teachers' Associations, Mother Teacher Associations, Tribal Autonomous
Councils and other grass root level structures in the management of elementary
* An expression of political will for universal elementary education across the country.
* A partnership between the Central, State and the local government.
* An opportunity for State to develop their own vision of elementary education
OBJECTIVES OF SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN
* All Children in school, Education Guarantee Centre, Alternate School,
'Back-to-School' camp by 2003.
* All Children complete five years of primary schooling by 2007.
* All Children complete eight years of elementary schooling by 2010.
* Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education
* Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at
elementary education level by 2010.
* Universal retention by 2010.
Institutional Reforms - As part of the SSA, the Central and the governments will undertake reforms in order to improve efficiency of the delivery system. The States will have to make an objective assessment of their prevalent education system including educational administration, achievement levels in schools, financial issues, decentralisation and community ownership, review of State Education Act, rationalization of teacher deployment and recruitment of teachers, monitoring and evaluation, status of education of girls, SC/ST and disadvantaged groups, policy regarding private schools and ECCE. Many States have already carried out several changes to improve the delivery system for elementary education.
Sustainable Financing - The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is based on the premise that financing of elementary education interventions has to be sustainable. This calls for a long-term perspective on financial partnership between the Central and the State governments.
Community Ownership - The programme calls for community ownership of school-based interventions through effective decentralisation. This will be augmented by involvement of women's group, VEC members and members of Panchayati Raj institutions.
Institutional Capacity Building - The SSA conceives a major capacity building role for national, state and district level institutions like NIEPA/NCERT/NCTE/ SCERT/ SIEMAT/DIET. Improvement in quality requires a sustainable support system of resource persons and institutions.
Improving Mainstream Educational Administration - It calls for improvement of mainstream educational administration by institutional development, infusion of new approaches and by adoption of cost effective and efficient methods.
Community Based Monitoring with Full Transparency - The Programme will have a community based monitoring system. The Educational Management Information System (EMIS) will correlate school level data with community-based information from micro planning and surveys. Besides this, every school will be encouraged to share all information with the community, including grants receive. A notice board would be put up in every school for this purpose.
Habitation as a Unit of Planning - The SSA works on community based approach to planning with habitation as a unit of planning. Habitation plans will be the basis for formulating district plans.
Accountability to Community - SSA envisages cooperation between teachers, parents and PRIs, as well as accountability and transparency to the community.
Priority to Education of Girls - Education of girls, especially those belonging to the scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and minorities, will be one of the principal concerns in Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.
Focus on Special Groups - There will be a focus on the inclusion and participation of children from SC/ST, minority groups, urban deprived children, children of other disadvantaged groups and children with special needs, in the educational process.
Pre-Project Phase - SSA will commence throughout the country with a well-planned pre-project phase that provides for a large number of interventions for capacity development to improve the delivery and monitoring system. These include provision for household surveys, community-based microplanning and school mapping, training of community leaders, school level activities, support for setting up information system, office equipment, diagnostic studies, etc.
Thrust on Quality - SSA lays a special thrust on making education at the elementary level useful and relevant for children by improving the curriculum, child-centered activities and effective teaching learning strategies.
Role of teachers - SSA recognized the critical and central role of teachers and advocates a focus on their development needs, Setting up of Block Resource Centres/Cluster Resource Centres, recruitment of qualified teachers, opportunities for teacher development through participation in curriculum-related material development, focus on classroom process and exposure visits for teachers are all designed to develop the human resource among teachers.
District Elementary Education Plans - As per the SSA framework, each district will prepare a District Elementary Education Plan reflecting all the investment being made and required in the elementary education sector, with a holistic and convergent approach. There will be a Perspective Plan that will give a framework of activities over a longer time frame to achieve UEE. There will also be an Annual Work Plan and Budget that will list the prioritized activities to be carried out in that year. The Perspective Plan will also be a dynamic document subject to constant improvement in the course of programme implementation.
* The assistance under the programme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan will be on a 85:15 sharing arrange3ment during the IX Plan, 75:25 sharing arrangement during the X Plan, and 50:50 sharing thereafter between the Central government and state governments.
* The State governments will have to maintain their level of investment in elementary education as in 1999-2000. The contribution as state share for SSA will be over and above this investment.
* The Government of India would release funds directly to the State implementation Society. The further installments would be released to the Society only after the State Government has transferred its matching funds to the Society and expenditure of at least 5o% of the funds (Centre and States) transferred has been effected.
* The support for teacher salary appointed under the SSA programme could be shared between the Central Government and the State government in a ratio of 85:15 during the IX Plan, 75:25 during the X Plan and 50:50 thereafter.
* All legal agreements regarding externally assisted projects will continue to apply unless specific modifications have been agreed to, in consultation with foreign funding agencies.
* Existing schemes of elementary education of the Department (except Mahila Samakhya, National Bal Bhawan and NCTE) will converge after the IX Plan. The National Programme for Nutritional support to Primary Education (Mid-Day-Meal) would remain a distinct intervention with foodgrains and specified transportation costs being met by the Centre and the cost of cooked meals being met by the State government.
* District Education Plans would inter-alia, clearly show the funds/resource available for various components under schemes like PMGY, JGSY, PMRY, Sunishchit Rozgar Yojana, Area fund of MPs/MLAs, /State Plan, foreign funding (if any) and resources generated in the NGO sector.
* All funds to be used for upgradation, maintenance, repair of schools and Teaching Learning Equipment and local management to be transferred to VECs/School Management Committees/Gram Panchayat/or any other village/school level arrangement for decentralisation adopted by the State. The village/School Based body may make a resolution regarding the best way of procurement.
* Other incentive schemes like distribution of scholarships and uniforms will continue to be funded under the State Plan. They will not be funded under the SSA programme.
The major financial norms under SSA are:
NORMS FOR INTERVENTIONS UNDER SSA
* One teacher for every 40 children in primary and upper primary
* At least two teachers in a primary school
* One teacher for every class in the upper primary
2.School/Alternative Schooling facility
* Within one kilometer of every habitation
* Provision for opening of new schools as per State norms or for setting up EGS like schools in unserved habitations.
3. Upper Primary schools/ Sector
* As per requirement, based on the number of children completing primary education, up to a ceiling of one upper primary school/section for every two primary schools
* A room for every teacher or for every grade/class, whichever is lower in primary & upper primary, with the provision that there would be two class rooms with verandah to every primary school with at least two teachers.
* A room for Head-Master in upper primary school/ section
5. Free Textbooks
* To all girls/SC/ST children at primary & upper primary level within an upper coiling of Rs. 150/- per child
* State to continue to fund free textbooks being currently provided from the State Plans.
* In case any State is partially subsidizing the cost of textbooks being supplied to children in Elementary classes, then the assistance under SSA would be restricted to that portion of the cost of the books which is being borne by the children.
6. Civil works
* Programme funds on Civil Works shall not exceed the ceiling of 33% of the entire project cost approved by the PAB on the basis of perspective plan prepared for the period till 2010
* This ceiling of 33% would not include the expenditure on maintenance and repair of buildings.
* However, in a particular year's annual plan provision for civil works can be considered upto 40% of the annual plan expenditure depending on the priority assigned to various components of the programmes in that year, within the overall project ceiling of 33%.
* For improvement of school facilities, BRC/CRC construction.
* CRCs could also be used as an additional room.
* No expenditure to be incurred on construction of office buildings.
* Districts to prepare infrastructure Plans.
7. Maintenance and repair of School buildings
* Only through school management committees/VECs.
* Upto Rs. 5000 per year as per specific proposal by the school committee.
* Must involve elements of community contribution.
* Expenditure on maintenance and repair of building would not be included for calculating the 33% limit for civil works.
* Grant will be available only for those schools which have existing building of their own.
8. Upgradation of EGS to regular school or setting up of a new Primary school as per State Norm
* Provision for TLE @ Rs. 10,000/- per school.
* TLE as per local context and need
* Involvement of teachers and parents necessary in TLE selection and procurement
* VEC/ school-village level appropriate body to decide on best mode of procurement
* Requirement of successful running of EGS centre for two years before it is considered for upgradation.
* Provision for teacher & classrooms,
9. TLE for upper-primary
* @ Rs 50,000 per school for uncovered schools.
* As per local specific requirement to be determined by the teachers/school committee
* School committee to decide on best mode of procurement, in consultation with teachers
* School Committee may recommend district level procurement if there are advantages of scale.
10. Schools grant
* Rs. 2000/- per year per primary/upper primary school for replacement of non-functional school equipment
* Transparency in utilization
* To be spent only by VEC/SMC
11. Teacher grant
* Rs. 500 per teacher per year in primary and upper primary
* Transparency in utilization
12. Teacher training
* Provision of 20 days in-service course for all teachers each year, 60 days refresher course for untrained teachers already employed as teachers, and 30 days orientation for freshly trained recruits @ Rs. 70/- per day
* Unit cost is indicative; would be lower in non residential training programmes
* Includes all training cost
* Assessment of capacities for effective training during appraisal will determine extent of coverage.
* Support for SCERT/DIET under existing Teacher Education Scheme
13. State Institute of Educational
Management and Training (SIEMAT)
* One time assistance up to Rs. 3 crore
* States have to agree to sustain
* Selection criteria for faculty to be rigorous
14. Training of Community leaders
* For a maximum of 8 persons in a village for 2 days in a year - preferably women
* @ Rs. 30/- per day per person
15. Provision for disabled children
* Upto Rs. 1200/- per child for integration of disabled children, as per specific proposal, per year
* District Plan for children with special needs will be formulated within the Rs. 1200 per child norm
* Involvement of resource institutions to be encouraged
16. Research, Evaluation, supervision and monitoring
* Upto Rs. 1500 per school per year
* Partnership with research and resource institutions, pool of resource teams with State specific focus
* Priority to development of capacities for appraisal and supervision through resource/research institutions and on an effective EMIS
* Provision for regular school mapping/micro planning for up dating of household data
* By creating pool of resource persons, providing travel grant and honorarium for monitoring, generation of community-based data, research studies, cost of assessment and appraisal terms & their field activities, classroom observation by resource persons
* Funds to be spent at national, state, district, sub district, school level put of the overall per school allocation.
* Rs. 100 per school per year to be spent at national level
* Expenditure at State/district/BRC/CRC/School level to be decided by State/UT, This would include expenditure on appraisal, supervision, MIS, classroom observation,
etc. Support to SCERT over and above the provision under the Teacher Education scheme may also be provided.
* Involvement of resource institutions willing to undertake state specific responsibilities
17. Management Cost
* Not to exceed 6% of the budget of a district plan
* To include expenditure on office expenses, hiring of experts at various levels after assessment of existing manpower, POL, etc.;
* Priority to experts in MIS, community planning processes, civil works, gender, etc. Depending on capacity available in a particular district
* Management costs should be used to develop effective teams at State/ District/Block/Cluster levels
* Identification of personnel for BRC/CRC should be a priority in the pre-project phase itself so that a team is available for the intensive process based planning.
18. Innovative activity for girls' education, early childhood care & education, interventions for children belonging to SC/ST, community computer education specially for upper primary level
* Upto to Rs. 15 lakh for each innovative project and Rs. 50 lakh for a district per year will apply for SSA
* ECCE and girls education interventions to have unit costs already approved under other existing schemes.
19. Block Resource Centres/Cluster Resource Centres
* There would be ordinarily one BRC in each Community Development (CD) Block, However, in states, where the sub-district educational administrative structure like educational blocks or circles, have jurisdictions which are not co-terminus with the CD Block, then the State may opt to have a BRC in such a sub-district educational administrative unit. However, in such a case the overall expenditure on BRCs and CRCs in a CD Block, both non-recurring and recurring, would not be more than the overall expenditure that would have been incurred on BRCs and CRCs in case if only one BRC per CD Block were opened.
* BRC/CRC to be located in school campus as far as possible.
* Rs. 6 lakh ceiling for BRC building construction wherever required
* Rs. 2 lakh for CRC construction wherever required - should be used as an additional classroom in schools.
* Total cost of non-school (BRC and CRC) construction in any district should not exceed 5% of the overall projected expenditure under the programme in any year.
* Deployment of up to 20 teacher in a block with more than 100 schools; 10 teachers in smaller Blocks in BRCs and CRCs put together.
* Provision of furniture, etc. @ Rs. 1 lakh for a BRC and Rs. 10,000 for CRC
* Contingency grant of Rs. 12,500 for a BRC and Rs. 2500 for a CRC, per year
* Meetings, Travel allowance: Rs 500/- per month per BRC, Rs 200/- per month per CRC.
* TLM Grant: Rs 5000/- per year per BRC, Rs 1000/- per year per CRC
* Identification of BRC/CRC personnel after intensive selection process in the preparatory phase itself.
20. Interventions for out of school children
* As per norms already approved under Education Guarantee Scheme & Alternative and Innovative Education, providing for the following kind of interventions.
* Setting up Education Guarantee Centres in unserved habitations
* Setting up other alternative schooling models
* Bridge Courses, remedial courses, Back-to-School Camps with a focus on mainstreaming out of school children into regular schools.
21. Preparatory activities for micro- planning, household surveys, studies, community mobilization, school-based activities, office equipment, training and orientation at all levels, etc.
* As per specific proposal of a district, duly recommended by the State. Urban areas, within a district or metropolitan cities may be treated as a separate unit for planning as required.