Animal Husbandry is an integral part of the diversified agriculture system. The animal husbandry sector plays a crucial role in the rural economy by providing gainful employment particularly to small, marginal farmers and agriculture labourers. It provides gainful employment and source of income and livelihood among landless labour and additional source of income to families through employment of women. In the agrarian economy Jharkhand livestock plays an important role in contribution to income, employment and women empowerment.
At the end of 9th five year plan, the milk production was 7.74 LMT which increased up to 14.01 LMT at the end of 10th five year plan similarly egg and meat production at the end of 9th five year plan was 411 million and 386 lakh kg. and increased up to 711 million and 426.36 lakh kg respectively, after suitable interventions of different animal husbandry activity. During the 10th plan period by intervention of different Animal Husbandry activity annual milk production increased from 9.51 lakh mt. ton to 14.01 lakh mt. ton, egg production from 661 million to 711 million and meat
production from 394.63 lakh kg to 426.37 lakh kg. According to the 17th livestock census, 2003, the livestock in the State is as under:-
Cattle – 7658721
Buffaloes – 1343494
Sheep – 679929
Goat – 5031016
Pig – 1107930
Horses and Poney – 4925
Dog – 485345
Poultry – 14429279
Breedable cattle population is 1.90 million and breedable buffalo is 0.39 million. There is improvement among cross breed population and it increased by 24.44% from 2003 to 2008. In Jharkhand, milk productivity of cow is 1.59 kg. per cattle per day whereas the national average is 3 kg. per cattle per day. The per capita availability of milk in
Jharkhand is 152 gms. as against the national average 240 gms. Similarly in Jharkhand per capita availability of egg is 25 eggs per annum whereas the national average is 42 eggs per annum.
No. of class – I veterinary hospital – 424
No. of mobile veterinary hospital – 04
No. of provincial veterinary hospital – 23
No. of cattle breeding farms – 03
No. of State run Poultry Farms – 02
No. of State run Pig Farms – 06
No. of State run Goat Farms – 01
No. of Gokul Gram Vikas Centre – 64
No. of A.I. Centres managed by the Department – 405
No. of Dairy Cattle Development Centre
managed by BAIF – 410
No. of Milk Chilling Centres/dairies – 16
No. of Biological production unit – 01
The Animal Husbandry programmes have effective role in development of this area with special focus on self employment and economic growth through livestock rearing. During the end of the 11th five year plan the following strategy is proposed to be adopted.
To increase the livestock production such as milk, egg, meat and wool.
To enhance the draught capacity of bullocks by intensive implementation of controlled breeding programme.
To consolidate and strengthen the existing infrastructure facilities for livestock
development in the State.
To promote the animal husbandry as a viable subsidiary source of income of rural population by providing improved facilities of cross breeding.
To promote proper management and animal health coverage.
Creation of awareness amongst milk producer, animal and poultry keepers.
Training of staff dealing with extension.
Paravet training to rural unemployed educated youth.
Control of fatal zoonotic diseases (those diseases which transmit from animal to man and vice-versa) of animals in order to make people’s life safer.
Strengthening/establishment of veterinary hospital, mobile polyclinic and Referral Veterinary Hospital.
To increase the productivity of animals through breed improvement programmes like opening of additional 500 A.I. Centers, establishment of 20 goat development centers and strengthening of 6 pig breeding farms.
Replacement of local pigs with 7000 piglets of T & D breed produced in Govt. farm
Promotion of backyard poultry farming through introduction of 2 lakh birds annually produced by the state run poultry farm.
Strengthening of 200 vet hospitals in terms of infrastructure & building phase wise and up gradation of 23 district veterinary hospitals
Establishment of 100 new vet hospitals.
Organisation of 4400 Animal Health Camps annually.
Establishment of additional farm, mobile polyclinics & one referral vet hospitals.
Programme for control of zoonotic diseases (those diseases which transmit from animal to man and vice-versa) in animals through immunization of 10000 livestock against Rabies and routine screening of 10000 birds for pullorum and 5000 cattle for
Strengthening of state run six pig, two poultry & three cattle farms phase wise.
Strengthening of animal health & production institute for production of different
Bacterial vaccines viz H.S.- 16 lakh, B.Q.-11 lakh, Anthrax – 2 lakh & Viral vaccines viz Ranikhet – 20 lakh, Swine fever – 0.5 lakh annually.
Training of 200 animal & poultry keepers every year as nodal keepers.
Training of 100 paravets annually.
Establishment of 19 additional disease diagnostic laboratory.
Establishment of referral vet. hospital at Divisional level besides mobile clinic.